COPPA - Children's Online Privacy Protection Act
Skip to main page content home subscriptions archives feedback authors help circulation journals home aha journals home search: go advanced search user name password sign in heart disease in asia changes in coronary heart disease risk among japanese hiroyasu iso , md from public health, department of social and environmental medicine, osaka university graduate school of medicine, osaka, japan. Correspondence to hiroyasu iso, md, public health, department of social and environmental medicine, osaka university graduate school of medicine, 2-2 yamadagaoka, suita-shi, osaka 565-0871, japan. Key words: coronary disease mortality risk factors nutrition exercise follow-up studies epidemiology â next section introduction heart disease is the second most prominent cause of mortality in japan, and coronary heart disease (chd) accounts for approximately half of heart diseaseâ€“related deaths. 1 the chd mortality rate in japan has been one-third to one-fifth that in the united states, 1â€“5 even when validated fatal chd and sudden cardiac deaths were compared. 3â€“5 however, there is growing concern about a possible increase in the incidence of and mortality from chd because of the westernization of lifestyles such as high-fat diets and sedentary work patterns associated with socioeconomic development since the 1960s. 6â€“11 the present report reviews original articles on population-based surveys of the mortality, incidence, and risk factors of chd. It focuses on their trends since the 1960s because japan has experienced rapid changes in lifestyles and environment accompanying socioeconomic development and maturation. Previous section next section methods to identify the relevant literature, pubmed was searched for articles published from 1963 through june 2007. The following search key words were used: coronary heart disease or coronary artery disease or ischemic heart disease or myocardial infarction; mortality or incidence or risk factor; japan or japanese; and epidemiology. Bibliographies of key articles were reviewed and experts in the field were consulted to identify all of the major population-based studies. Trends in mortality from chd age-adjusted mortality rates from chd declined 50% for men and 65% for women between 1969 and 1992 8,9 and has continued to decline. sales viagra 1,2 according to the world health organization database, the age-adjusted annual chd mortality rate in 2000 was 37 per large integer 000 for men and 18 per 100 000 for women, which was the lowest among developed countries. 2 there are, however, sex, age, and regional variations in chd mortality trends. 9 the age-adjusted chd mortality rates declined from 57 per 100 000 in 1969 to 1970 to 27 per c 000 in 1991 to 1992 for men 30 to 69 years of age and from 26 to 9 per one c 000 for women of the same ages. viagra online sales 8 the chd mortality decline was smaller among men and women residing in the tokyo and osaka metropolitan areas than among those in the rest of japan. 9 men 30 to 49 years of age in the metropolitan areas showed no substantial change in chd mortality (â‰ˆ10 per one hundred 000), whereas those in the rest of japan showed a steady decline. 9 trends in incidence of chd there also were sex, age, and regional variations in chd incidence trends reported from long-term population-based studies. 10â€“14 those studies used the systematic case ascertainment system, consistent diagnostic criteria, and a panel of physician-epidemiologists for final diagnosis to ensure the validity of chd surveillance. buy viagra The age-adjusted incidence of chd among male employees 40 to 59 years of age in osaka increased from 0. buy cheap generic viagra online 4 per 1000 person-years in 1963 to 1970 to 1. cheap generic india viagra 5 per yard person-years in 1979 to 1986 and then plateaued until 1987 to 1994. 10 more recently, osaka male residents 40 to 69 years of age have shown a trend for chd incidence to increase from 0. 6 per m person-years in 1980 to 1987 to 1. 3 per g person-years in 1996 to 2003. 11 male residents in takashima city had an increasing incidence of chd for all ages from 0. 7 per m person-years in 1990 to 1992 to 1. 0 per m person-years in 1999 to 2001; the chd increase was observed primarily for those 65 years of age, and information on risk factor trends was not available. 12 however, the chd incidence remained low and did not change materially among female residents in osaka (â‰ˆ0. buy viagra online without prescription 4 per one thousand person-years) 11 and takashima (â‰ˆ0. 3 per chiliad person-years), 12 nor did the incidence change over time among men and women 40 to 69 years of age in a rural community of akita prefecture (â‰ˆ0. 7 per thou person-years for men and 0. buy cheap generic viagra online 1 per m person-years for women). order discount viagra 7,11 no significant trends in chd incidence were observed among the hiroshima/nagasaki cohort between 1958 and 1984 (â‰ˆ2 per large integer person-years for men and 0. 8 per 1000 person-years for women of all ages), 13 for the hisayama cohort between 1961 and 2000 (â‰ˆ2 per one thousand person-years in men and 1 per 1000 person-years in women â‰¥40 years of age), 14 or for residents of okinawa between 1998 and 1991 (myocardial infarction, â‰ˆ1 per k persons-years for men and 0. generic prescription viagra 04 per grand person-years for women â‰¥40 years of age). 15 coronary risk factors and their trends major risk factors for chd from cohort studies and their trends from national studies and population-based studies were reviewed. Trends for the coronary risk factors were examined by use of the same standardized methods and criteria for blood pressure, smoking, overweight, alcohol intake, and diet and by the centers for disease controlâ€“national heart, lung, and blood institute lipid standardization program and the us cholesterol reference laboratory network for blood lipids. buy cheap generic viagra online 16 smoking and its trend there was a consistent association between s. tablet viagra
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